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LA ALDEA CHINA QUE CAMBIÓ ARROZ POR CHATARRA.
El 80% de lo habitantes de Guiyu sobreviven gracias al desguace de artículos electrónicos poniendo en riesgo su salud
Un niño rodeado de escombros de cables y basura electrónica. EFE.

Efe, Pekín (China)
Los habitantes de Guiyu, en la desarrollada costa china, han abandonado el cultivo del arroz como medio de vida por un negocio mucho más rentable pero implacable con su salud y el medio ambiente: el reciclaje de la basura electrónica del resto del mundo.

El 70% de los desechos electrónicos del planeta están en China y buena parte de ellos llegan, en violación de la Convención de Basilea, desde los países desarrollados hasta el puerto de Nanhai, en la provincia suroriental de Cantón.

Desde allí, una red ilegal de importadores los transportan a la pequeña localidad de Guiyu.

Entre colinas de teclados, cables y placas, hombre, mujeres y niños funden y destripan restos de artículos electrónicos, sobre todo ordenadores, sin apenas protección, lo que les convierte en presa fácil de las 700 sustancias tóxicas incluidas en esos objetos.

Con las manos desnudas, el 80% de los 150.000 habitantes de Guiyu buscan materiales como cobre, plástico o acero, que luego venden a los mercaderes de segunda mano.

"Muchos emigrantes rurales han llegado hasta Guiyu atraídos por unos salarios de entre dos y tres dólares la hora, muy superiores a lo que ganan en el campo", explica Jamie Choi, responsable de campaña de Greenpeace. "Tienen que elegir entre tener suficiente dinero para vivir o su salud", añade.

Nocivo para la salud

En este gran vertedero de la sociedad de la información apenas se usan máscaras y la herramienta más avanzada tiene forma de taladro, afirma.

Los perjuicios para la salud tienen un exponente demoledor: el 80% de los niños de Guiyu presentan niveles altos de plomo en la sangre, lo que causa en daños en el sistema nervioso y reproductor, según constató un estudio de la cercana Universidad de Shantou.

"Los niños, sobre todo los hijos de los emigrantes, se dedican a hacer las labores más sencillas. Están 24 horas trabajando, respirando, jugando con los materiales peligrosos", explica Choi.

Entre tanto, Wu Yuping, de la Administración Estatal de Medio Ambiente (SEPA), subraya que "no se puede encontrar agua potable en 50 kilómetros a la redonda", debido a que las sustancias tóxicas se amontonan en las riberas del río y se filtran de forma subterránea.

En 1994, la Convención de Basilea, suscrita por casi todos los países desarrollados menos Estados Unidos, prohibió la exportación de desechos peligrosos de los países ricos a los pobres, incluidos los destinados al reciclaje, pero su aplicación ha mostrado muchas lagunas.

"Greenpeace ha visto barcos que parten de Holanda a China, cargados de residuos electrónicos", dice Choi.
Y muchos llegan a Guiyu.

De vuelta al ‘primer mundo’

Entre las labores cotidianas está la de desarmar placas madre en un hornillo casero de carbón en busca de los codiciados chips, que contienen oro.

O también fundir las carcasas de los ordenadores para transformar el tóxico PVC en piezas que se destinan a objetos que, curiosamente, vuelven a acabar en el mundo occidental: las flores de plástico.

Cada año el planeta genera entre 20 y 50 millones de toneladas de desechos electrónicos, de acuerdo con datos del Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente:el 80% acaba en Asia y de ese porcentaje el 90% llega a China.

Aunque Guiyu es el más célebre, hay otros vertederos de este tipo en Longtan y Tali, también en Cantón, en Taizhou (provincia de Zhejiang) y en la vecina Hunan, según alerta la SEPA.

Si bien la mayoría de los desechos proceden de los países ricos, China genera cada año 1,1 millones de toneladas, una cifra que se multiplica a medida que aumenta el nivel de vida.

"En los suburbios de ciudades como Pekín o Tianjin hay pequeñas chabolas dedicadas a desarmar objetos electrónicos que acaban en Guiyu", subraya Choi.

El Gobierno estudia un proyecto de ley para que los fabricantes de ordenadores, televisores, refrigeradores, lavadoras y aires acondicionados chinos se responsabilicen de reciclar sus productos.

Esa medida responde a las peticiones de los ecologistas, que consideran que son los fabricantes quienes tienen que asumir la responsabilidad por sus productos.

Sin embargo, dicen, no habrá solución definitiva sin pasos como el dado el año pasado por la Unión Europea: prohibir el uso de plomo, mercurio, cadmio, cromo hexavalente, bifenilos policromados y éter de bifenilo policromado en los aparatos electrónicos.

Hake me hizo reflexionar sobre este tema :
www.flickr.com/photos/hake/415111783/?#comment72157594578…

THE CHINESE VILLAGE THAT CHANGED RICE BY SCRAP IRON. 80% of the inhabitants of Guiyu survive thanks to the electronic article taking apart putting in risk their health a boy surrounded by rubbish of cables and electronic sweepings. EFE. Efe, Beijing (Chinese) the inhabitants of Guiyu, in the developed Chinese coast, has left the culture of the rice like means of life by a profitable but much more implacable business with their health and the medio.ambiente: the recycling of the electronic sweepings of the rest of the world. 70% of the electronic remainders of the planet are in China and good part of them arrives, in violation of the Convention of Basel, from the countries developed to the port of Nanhai, in the suroriental province of Corner. From there, an illegal network of importers transports them to the small locality of Guiyu. Between hills of keyboards, cables and plates, man, women and children found and gut rest of electronic articles, mainly computers, without hardly protection, which turns to them easy prey of the 700 toxic substances including in those objects. With the naked hands, 80% of the 150,000 inhabitants of Guiyu look for materials as it receives, plastic or steel, that soon sell the merchants of second hand. "Many rural emigrants have arrived until Guiyu attracted by wages from between two and three dollars the hour, very superior to which they win in the field", explains Jamie Choi, person in charge of campaign of Greenpeace. "They must choose between having sufficient money to live or its health", adds. Injurious for the health In this great garbage dump of the society of the information as soon as masks are used and the tool more outpost has drill form, affirms. The damages for the health have a demolishing exponent: 80% of the children of Guiyu present/display high lead levels in the blood, which cause in damages in the nervous and reproductive system, according to stated a study of the near University of Shantou. "the children, mainly the children of the emigrants, dedicate themselves to make the workings simplest. 24 hours are working, breathing, playing with the dangerous materials ", explains Choi. In the meantime, Wu Yuping, of the State Administration of Medio.ambiente (IT KNOWS), emphasizes that "potable water in 50 kilometers to the round one cannot be found", because the toxic substances crowd in the shores of the river and they filter of underground form. In 1994, the Convention of Basel, subscribed by almost all the developed countries less United States, prohibited the export of dangerous remainders of the rich countries to the poor men, including the destined one to the recycling, but its application has shown many lagoons. "Greenpeace has seen boats that leave from Holland for China, loaded of electronic remainders", says Choi. And many arrive at Guiyu. Of return to ‘ first mundó Between the daily workings she is the one to disarm plates mother in a homemade coal small furnace in search of coveted the Chips, that contain gold. Or also to fuse the housings of the computers to transform toxic PVC into pieces that are destined to objects that, peculiarly, return to finish in the western world: the plastic flowers. Every year the planet generates between 20 and 50 million tons of electronic remainders, in agreement with data of the Program of Nations United for the Means Ambiente:el 80% finish in Asia and from that percentage 90% arrive at China. Although Guiyu is most famous, is other garbage dumps of this type in Longtan and Tali, also in Corner, Taizhou (province of Zhejiang) and in the Hunan neighbor, according to alert KNOWS it. Although most of the remainders they come from the rich countries, Chinese generates every year 1.1 million tons, a number that is multiplied as it increases the standard of life. "In the suburbs of cities as Beijing or Tianjin are small dedicated shacks to disarm electronic objects that finish in Guiyu", it emphasizes Choi. The Government studies a law project so that the manufacturers of computers, television sets, refrigerators, washing machines and conditioneds air Chinese take responsibility to recycle their products. That measurement responds to requests of the ecologists, who consider that they are the manufacturers whom they have to assume the responsibility by his products. Nevertheless, they say, will be definitive solution without passages like the dice no the year last through the European Union: to prohibit the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalente chromium, policromados bifenilos and ether of bifenilo policromado in the electronic devices. Hake made me reflect on this subject: www.flickr.com/photos/hake/415111783/?#comment72157594578...
By art_es_anna on 2009-02-24 12:55:41
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